Gut Instincts: A Clinician's Handbook of Digestive and Liver Diseases

Eric Esrailian, MD, MPH

Chapter 43: Sedation (continued)

Jeremy M. Wong, MD; Samuel H. Wald, MD

While many endoscopic procedures were once performed without sedation, more than 98% in the United States are now routinely performed under sedation. Properly administered sedation will not only optimize conditions for the endoscopist, but it can improve safety and patient satisfaction. Sedation-related complications with endoscopy can account for up to half of the serious adverse events. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) has published practice guidelines that describe 4 levels of sedation, ranging from mild sedation (anxiolysis) to general anesthesia (Table 43-1). Due to…
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