Johns Hopkins Manual for GI Endoscopic Nurses, Third Edition

Mouen Khashab, MD; Toshunia Robinson, MD; Anthony Kalloo, MD

Chapter 45: Egd With Pneumatic Dilation For Achalasia (continued)

Ellen Stein, MD; Rukshana Cader, MD

Achalasia is a condition of the esophagus where the LES fails to relax appropriately. The esophagus can become deformed and dilated over time due to the pressure build up within the esophagus. The classic image on barium swallow for achalasia is the bird-beak appearance of the esophagus which forms from the silhouette of the tight sphincter muscles of the LES. Most of the treatments of achalasia involve getting the muscles of the lower esophageal muscle to relax. Treatments include medical measures (botox), mechanical means to disrupt the muscle (pneumatic balloon), and different types of…