Clinical Challenges and Complications of IBD

Miguel D Regueiro, MD; Jason Swoger, MD MPH

Chapter 8: Skin And Oral Disease (continued)

Lisa M. Grandinetti, MD, FAAD, MMS; Jason M. Swoger, MD, MPH

The skin and oral cavity are sites frequently involved with extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reported frequencies of EIMs in IBD patients are quite variable, with recent reports ranging from 6.2% to as high as 43%.1,2 It has been hypothesized that the presence of one EIM increases the risk of developing another, suggesting a common pathogenic mechanism.2 Although this mechanism is not well understood, it is likely due to interplay of genetics, immunologic dysregulation, and environmental exposures. There is evidence that an aberrant immunologic…