Extraesophageal Manifestations of GERD

Anthony J DiMarino Jr, MD; Sidney Cohen, MD

Chapter 1: Extraesophageal Reflux Definition and Pathophysiology (continued)

Vikneswaran Namasivayam, MBBS, MRCP; David A. Katzka, MD

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms or complications.1 The Montreal definition of GERD encompasses a wide spectrum of manifestations. These include esophageal syndromes, which are further categorized into those with esophageal injury and those defined by the presence of symptoms and extraesophageal syndromes (Table 1-1). This is an operational definition that acknowledges the disconnect between endoscopic evidence of esophageal injury (eg, esophagitis, strictures, metaplasia) and reflux…