Special Tests for Neurologic Examination

James R. Scifers, DScPT, PT, SCS, LAT, ATC

  • $64.95
  • ISBN 10 1-55642-797-2
  • ISBN 13 978-1-55642-797-8
  • 432 pp Soft Cover
  • Pub. Date: 2008
  • Order# 47972

Ideal for students and clinicians to access quick clinical information, Special Tests for Neurologic Examination offers invaluable evaluation and assessment tips and techniques for neurologic conditions commonly found in patients. Organized in an easy-to-use format, this book is the perfect guide for practicing clinical skills and reviewing for licensure and certification examinations.

Dr. James R. Scifers describes and illustrates special tests for the upper extremity, lower extremity, and spine. This resource provides performance criteria for each special test, important information on specificity and sensitivity, and valuable references for further investigation.

Inside you’ll find:

  • Techniques for dermatome, myotome, reflex screening, and
    concussion testing
  • Examples of various concussion grading scales and
    neuropsychological tests
  • Special design that facilitates use of the book as a user-friendly study guide and quick clinical reference
  • Data on test specificity and sensitivity to assist clinicians in determining the value and strength of various clinical examination procedures
  • Additional resources for further study and exploration

A facilitative and comprehensive approach to learning, practicing, and reviewing neurologic special tests makes Special Tests for Neurologic Examination a must-have for students and clinicians alike. With a focus on commonly used evaluative procedures for differentiating and diagnosing neurologic disorders, the book serves as a valuable companion to the popular Special Tests for Orthopedic Examination.

About the Author
About the Contributor
Foreword by John M. Hauth, EdD, ATC

  • Section One: Head

Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve II: Optic Nerve
Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor Nerve
Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear Nerve
Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve VI: Abducens Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve VIII: Acoustic Nerve
Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Cranial Nerve X: Vagus Nerve
Cranial Nerve XI: Spinal Accessory Nerve
Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal Nerve

Jill A. Manners, MS, LAT, ATC

Glasgow Coma Scale
Rancho Levels of Cognitive Functioning
Levels of Consciousness
Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT)
American Academy of Neurology Grading Scale
Cantu Concussion Grading Guidelines
Colorado Medical Society Concussion Rating Guidelines
Torg Concussion Grading Guidelines
University of North Carolina Concussion Grading Scale

Jill A. Manners, MS, LAT, ATC

Romberg Test
Tandem Test
Finger-to-Nose Test
Proprioceptive Finger-to-Nose Test
Serial Seven Test
Past-Pointing Test
Neurological Control Test-Upper Extremity
Neurological Control Test-Lower Extremity
Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Test

Computerized Assessments
Pencil-and-Paper Tests
Standard Assessment of Concussion (SAC) Test
Trail Making Test
Symbol Digit Modalities Test
Stroop Color and Word Test

Hoffmann's Sign
Babinski's Test
Oppenheim's Test
Chvostek's Sign
Weber Test
Rinne Test
Decerebrate Posturing
Decorticate Posturing

  • Section Two: Cervical Spine

Sensory Testing: Light Touch
Sensory Testing: Sharp-Dull
Sensory Testing: Temperature
Sensory Testing: Two-Point Discrimination

C1 and C2 Myotome Test
C3 Myotome Test
C4 Myotome Test
C5 Myotome Test
C5/C6 Myotome Test: Elbow Flexion
C6 Myotome Test: Wrist Extension
C7 Myotome Test: Elbow Extension
C7 Myotome Test: Wrist Flexion
C7 Myotome Test: Finger Extension
C8 Myotome Test: Finger Flexion
C8 Myotome Test: Thumb Flexion
C8 Myotome Test: Thumb Extension
T1 Myotome Test: Finger Abduction
T1 Myotome Test: Finger Adduction

Biceps Brachii Reflex (C5 Nerve Root) Testing
Brachioradialis Reflex (C6 Nerve Root) Testing
Triceps Reflex (C7 Nerve Root) Testing

Brachial Plexus Traction Test
Upper Limb Tension Test (ULTT) 1: Median Nerve Bias
ULTT 2: Median, Musculocutaneous, and Axillary Nerve Bias
ULTT 3: Radial Nerve Bias
ULTT 4: Ulnar Nerve Bias
Shoulder Abduction Test
Cervical Compression Test
Spurling's Test
Cervical Distraction Test
Swallowing Test
Tinel's Sign
Valsalva's Maneuver

  • Section Three: Thoracic Spine

  • Section Four: Lumbar Spine

L1 and L2 Myotome Test
L3 Myotome Test
L4 Myotome Test: Ankle Dorsiflexion
L4 Myotome Test: Ankle Inversion
L5 Myotome Test
S1 Myotome Test: Ankle Plantarflexion
S1 Myotome Test: Ankle Eversion
S2 Myotome Test

Patellar Tendon Reflex (L4 Nerve Root) Testing
Achilles Tendon Reflex (S1 Nerve Root) Testing

Beevor's Sign
Milgram's Test
Brudzinski's Sign
Kernig's Test
Straight Leg Raise Test
Well Straight Leg Raise Test
Quadrant Test
Slump Test
Bowstring Test
Tension Sign
Sitting Root Test
Prone Knee Bending Test
Valsalva's Maneuver

  • Section Five: Upper Extremity

Axillary Nerve
Long Thoracic Nerve Injury
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital Fossa Syndrome
Radial Tunnel Syndrome/Supinator Syndrome
Pronator Teres Syndrome
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Tunnel of Guyon Syndrome
Drop Wrist Deformity
Ape Hand Deformity
Bishop's Hand Deformity
Claw Hand Deformity Chapter

Adson's Test
Allen's Test
Military Brace Position
Hyperabduction Syndrome Test
Halstead's Maneuver
Roo's Test
Tinel's Sign at the Elbow
Elbow Flexion Test
Pronator Teres Syndrome Test
Wartenberg's Sign
Phalen's Test
Reverse Phalen's Test
Tinel's Sign at the Wrist
Carpal Compression Test
Pinch Grip Test
Froment's Sign
Egawa's Sign
Wrinkle Test
Ninhydrin Test
Weber's Two-Point Discrimination Test

  • Section Six: Lower Extremity

Morton's Neuroma
Common Fibular Nerve Injury
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Anterior Compartment Syndrome
Piriformis Syndrome
Meralgia Paresthetica
Ilioinguinal Nerve Entrapment

Tinel's Sign for Tarsal Tunnel
Pencil Test
Interdigital Neuroma Test
Duchenne Test
Piriformis Test
Yeoman's Test
Femoral Nerve Traction Test


  • Chapter 1: Cranial Nerve Assessment

  • Chapter 2: Concussion Grading Scales/Coma Scales

  • Chapter 3: Concussion Testing

  • Chapter 4: Neuropsychological Tests

  • Chapter 5: Special Tests for Central Nervous System Involvement

  • Chapter 6: Dermatome Testing

  • Chapter 7: Myotome Testing

  • Chapter 8: Reflex Testing

  • Chapter 9: Special Tests for the Cervical Spine

  • Chapter 10: Dermatome Testing

  • Chapter 11: Myotome Testing

  • Chapter 12: Dermatome Testing

  • Chapter 13: Myotome Testing

  • Chapter 14: Reflex Testing

  • Chapter 15: Special Tests for the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

  • Chapter 16: Peripheral Nerve Pathology of the Upper Extremity

  • Chapter 17: Special Tests for the Upper Extremity

  • Chapter 18: Peripheral Nerve Pathology of the Lower Extremity

  • Chapter 19: Special Tests for the Lower Extremity

"The author is applauded for using an evidence-based approach providing data relative to the reliability, sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of many tests. Conditions and special tests are described in an outline format that is easy to follow, and most figures are valuable in identifying the pertinent aspects of the special tests. This text has many excellent chapters that will help one acquire the knowledge and skills necessary for examining a patient with a suspected neurologic disorder."

— Michael Tamburello, PT, PhD, ATC, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, Journal of Athletic Training

From the Foreword:

"By providing students with a clear, concise, and well-illustrated text on neurologic examination techniques, Dr. Scifers has filled an obvious void in the athletic training, physical therapy, and allied health literature. Special Tests for Neurologic Examination is much more than a collection of special tests and examination techniques. The descriptions and figures have been carefully selected and the inclusion of alternate (regional) names for selected techniques minimizes the confusion experienced by students who are often required to master a large number of tests. The publication of this text is both timely and appropriate."

— John M. Hauth, EdD, ATC, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania

"Special Tests for Neurologic Examination by Dr. James R. Scifers is a great text that compiles information about various neurologic examination and evaluation techniques into an easy-to-use guide for students, clinicians, and educators. I highly recommend, Special Tests for Neurologic Examination. This text would be a valuable addition to any athletic training or physical therapy curriculum, as a supplement to larger evaluation texts."

— Jessica Walter, MSEd, ATC, LAT, Cumberland University, Athletic Training & Sports Health Care

"It is a valuable resource for experienced clinicians who need a quick guide to cranial nerve testing, concussion testing and grading, and other neurological tests. The overall organization is easy to follow. This is a valuable resource for athletic training students and experienced athletic trainers who see athletes post-concussion. It may serve as a quick reference in the training room or clinic, or as a teaching tool."

— Barbara Jean Billek-Sawhney, PT, EdD, GCS, Slippery Rock University, Doody Enterprise, Inc.

James R. Scifers, DScPT, PT, SCS, LAT, ATC is the founding Program Director for the Western Carolina University Athletic Training Education Program. He also serves as an Associate Professor in the School of Health Sciences and the Department of Physical Therapy at Western Carolina University.

Dr. Scifers received his bachelor of science degree in athletic training from East Stroudsburg University, his master of physical therapy degree from Emory University, and his doctor of science in physical therapy degree from the University of Maryland School of Medicine. He is a North Carolina licensed athletic trainer and physical therapist and holds certification as a Board Certified Specialist in Sports Physical Therapy.

Dr. Scifers has more than 18 years of clinical practice in the professional, collegiate, secondary school, and clinical settings. He has served as Program Director for the Athletic Training Education Programs at Salisbury University and Lock Haven University and also as a professor in the University of Kentucky Department of Physical Therapy.

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