Prevention and Control of Influenza and Dengue Through Vaccine Development
CME Educational Objectives
1.Review the impact of influenza infection in the pediatric population.
Discuss the importance of influenza B as a key cause of morbidity and review the progress on development and deployment of quadrivalent influenza vaccines.
Articulate the epidemiology and impact of dengue worldwide and identify difficulties unique to developing a vaccine for this disease.
Influenza and dengue are viral illnesses of global public health importance, especially among children. Accordingly, these diseases have been the focus of efforts to improve their prevention and control. Influenza vaccination offers the best protection against clinical disease caused by strains contained within the specific year’s formulation. It is not uncommon for there to be a mismatch between vaccine strains and circulating strains, particularly with regards to the B lineages. For more than a decade, two distinct lineages of influenza B (Yamagata and Victoria) have co-circulated in the US with varying frequencies, but trivalent influenza vaccines contain only one B-lineage strain and do not offer adequate protection against the alternate B-lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs), containing two A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and two B strains (one from each lineage) have been developed to help protect against the four strains predicted to be the most likely to be circulating. The QIV section of this article discusses epidemiology of pediatric influenza, importance of influenza B in children, potential benefits of QIV, and new quadrivalent vaccines.
In contrast to influenza, a vaccine against dengue is not yet available in spite of many decades of research and development. A global increase in reports of dengue fever (DF) and its more severe presentations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), suggest that US physicians will increasingly encounter patients with this disease. Similarities of the early signs and symptoms of influenza and dengue and the differences in disease management necessitates a better understanding of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and prevention of DF by US physicians, including pediatricians. The article also provides a brief overview of dengue and discusses dengue vaccine development.
David P. Greenberg, MD, Associate Vice President, Scientific and Medical Affairs, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA and Adjunct Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Corwin A. Robertson, MD, MPH, Director, Scientific and Medical Affairs, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA; Daniel M. Gordon, MD, Associate Vice President, Clinical Affairs, US Medical Affairs, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA.
Address correspondence to: David P. Greenberg, MD, Sanofi Pasteur, Discovery Drive, Swiftwater, PA 18370; email: David.Greenberg@sanofipasteur.com.
Disclosure: The authors are full-time employees of Sanofi Pasteur.