Type 1 and unilateral manifestations of Duane retraction syndrome were shown to be more prevalent in female patients than in male patients, a study found.
"Unilateral and bilateral [Duane retraction syndrome] show considerable differences in gender distribution, associated ocular deviation, overshoots, and ocular and systemic associations," the study authors said.
The prevalence of Duane retraction syndrome, a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder, is believed to be 1% to 5% in the general population of people with strabismus.
The retrospective study included 441 patients. Duane retraction syndrome was classified into three types: type 1 (limited abduction with normal to near normal adduction), type 2 (limited adduction with normal to near normal abduction) and type 3 (limited abduction and adduction).
Overall mean patient age at presentation was 13.84 years (range: 5 months to 72 years). Mean age at presentation was 14.03 years for unilateral disease and 12.4 years for bilateral disease; there were 247 female patients and 194 male patients.
Study results showed that 389 patients (88.2%) had unilateral disease and 52 patients (11.8%) had bilateral disease.
Unilateral disease was significantly more prevalent in female patients (P = .006). However, bilateral disease was similarly prevalent in male and female patients.
Type 1 disease was significantly more prevalent in female patients than male patients (P = .003). However, types 2 and 3 disease were similarly prevalent in female and male patients.
Data showed that 139 cases had hypermetropia or hyperopic astigmatism, 98 cases had myopia or myopic astigmatism and 11 cases had myopic refractive error in one eye and hypermetropia in the fellow eye.
Horizontal strabismus was equally common in patients with unilateral and bilateral disease, the authors said.