- Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
- July/August 2012 - Volume 49 · Issue 4: 248-253
Watching three-dimensional (3D) images is known to induce ocular and non-ocular symptoms, such as eye discomfort, fatigue, headache, and nausea, which can be referred to as “3D asthenopia”. This study investigated ophthalmic factors associated with 3D asthenopia.
One hundred fifteen volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, were enrolled in this study. 3D images were shown to all volunteers with 3D high-definition television for 90 minutes. Subjects who felt eyestrain were assigned to the asthenopia group (14 subjects) and subjects without symptoms were assigned to the control group (22 subjects). Ophthalmic factors including visual acuity, refractive errors, interpupillary distance, intraocular pressure, tear break-up time, near point of accommodation, presence of strabismus, stereoacuity, and retinal abnormalities were evaluated and compared between the two groups.
Six subjects in the asthenopia group had exophoria and 1 subject in the control group had constant exotropia. None of these participants had previously noticed symptoms of strabismus. Only the presence of strabismus was significantly different between the groups (P = .008).
The presence of exophoria may be a risk factor for 3D asthenopia, and 3D television may induce asthenopia by exacerbating this latent problem.
From the Departments of Ophthalmology (S-HK, Y-WS, J-SS, J-HP, YYK, KH) and Biomedical Science (JS), Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul; the Department of Psychology (KK), Kangwon National University, Chuncheon; Korea Radio Promotion Association (TJ), 3DTV Broadcasting Promotion Center, Seoul; and the Department of Electronic Engineering (KSP), Dong-A University, Greater Busan, Republic of Korea.
Supported by research grants from the Korea Communications Commission (KCC) and conducted as part of research suggesting “guidelines for the safety of 3D broadcast viewing” by the Korea Radio Promotion Association.
The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.
Address correspondence to Seung-Hyun Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, 516, Gojan-dong, Gyunggi-do, 425-707, Republic of Korea. E-mail: email@example.com