- OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
- Summer 2012 - Volume 32 · Issue 3: 104-112
This electronic momentary assessment study explored the relationship between flow and pain intensity and examined whether flow is an optimal experience for people with chronic pain. Adults with chronic pain (n = 30) were signaled randomly seven times daily during 1 week to respond to a flow questionnaire via personal digital assistant. The participants responded to 718 questionnaires from 1,447 beeps (response rate = 49.6%). Results indicated that participants were most commonly at home, doing self-care activities, with family or alone. Participants experienced flow 34.9%, apathy 44.6%, relaxation 11.6%, and anxiety 8.9% of the sampled time. Participants’ mean concentration, self-esteem, motivation, and potency scores were highest in flow compared to the other three states. Separate one-way between-groups analyses of variance comparing concentration (F(3) = 11.85; p < .001), self-esteem (F(3) = 11.98; p < .001), motivation (F(3) = 29.29; p < .001), positive affect (F(3) = 2.89; p = .035), potency (F(3) = 19.88; p < .001), and pain intensity (F(3) = 1.39; p = .245) scores across the four states showed a significant overall effect on all comparisons except pain intensity and positive affect.
Katie Robinson, MSc, is Lecturer/Health Research Board of Ireland Research Fellow, Occupational Therapy Department, and Norelee Kennedy, PhD, is Lecturer, Physiotherapy Department, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland. Dominic Harmon, MD, is Consultant in Pain Medicine, Mid Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland.
The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.
This manuscript was accepted under the editorship of Jane Case-Smith, EdD, OTR/L, FAOTA.
Address correspondence to Katie Robinson at firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: February 28, 2011
Accepted: November 12, 2011
Posted Online: January 03, 2012