The rate of pneumonia in children with HIV decreased due to highly active antiretroviral therapy, according to the results of a recent study.
Dariela Micheloud, MD, PhD, and colleagues of the Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain, performed a retrospective study on 168 children aged younger than 17 years with HIV who were hospitalized from 1997 to 2008.
Of 180 pneumonia diagnoses (some of the children were re-diagnosed), 137 had non-AIDS–defining pneumonia (non-ADP) and 43 had AIDS-defining pneumonia (ADP).
The researchers tracked disease patterns among the children and reported that the rate of pneumonia was four times higher in children with HIV than in the general population.
The overall rate of pneumonia (events per 1,000 HIV-infected children/year) in the whole follow-up period was 13.77. The non-ADP rate was 10.48 and ADP rate was 3.28, the researchers wrote.
Micheloud and colleagues attributed the reduced rate of ADP in children with HIV to increased use of HAART.
“The rate of pneumonia decreased among HIV-infected children in the HAART era, although the pneumonia rate still remains higher than in the general population,” the researchers said. “Non-ADP remains a significant health problem for HIV-infected children in Spain.”
The researchers noted some limitations to the data, notably lack of access to patient clinical data, data set anonymity and the lack of national coverage data of HIV-infected children in Spain.
Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.